There are 4 passages in this part that are followed by 25 questions. or each question, there are four suggested answers marked A,B,C and D. ad the passages carefully and then choose the best answer to each of the questions. On your answer sheet, indicate the letter A, B, C or D against the number of each item 1-25 for the answer you choose. (50 points)
Americans are people obsessed with child-rearing. In their books, magazines, talk shows, parent training courses, White House conferences, and chats over the back fence, they endlessly debate the best ways to raise children. Moreover, Americans do more than debate their theories; they translate them into action. They erect playgrounds for the youngsters’ pleasure, equip large schools for their education, and train skilled specialists for their welfare. Whole industries in America are devoted to making children happy, healthy and wise.
But this interest in childhood is relatively new. In fact, until very recently people considered childhood just a brief, unimportant prelude to adulthood and the real business of living. By and large they either ignored children, beat them, or fondle them carelessly, much as we would amuse ourselves with a lot of puppies. When they gave serious thought to children at all, people either conceived of them as miniature adults or as peculiar, uniformed animals.
Down through the ages the experiences of childhood have been as varied as its duration. Actions that would have provoked a beating in one era elicit extra loving care in another. Babies who have been cared exclusively by their mothers in one epoch are left with day-care workers in another. In some places children have been trained to straddle unsteady canoes, negotiate treacherous mountain passes, and carry heavy bundles on their heads. In other places they have been taught complicated piano concerto and long multiplication tables.
But diverse as it has been, children have one common experience at its core and that is the social aspect of rearing. All children need adults to bring them up. Because human young take so long to become independent, we think that civilization may have grown up around the need to feed and protect them. Certainly, from the earliest days of man, adults have made provisions for the children in their midst.
- The present day American obsession with child-rearing has ______________
A. resulted in ineffectual action
B. initiated pointless discussions
C. had wide-ranging results
D. produced endless theories
2. It is implied in the second paragraph that in the past children ______________
A. were ill-treated because they were considered of no importance
B. were considered as having some animal natures
C. were not interesting as they were expected and thus were ignored
D. were not very happy and healthy because their parents left no time on them
3. The word to negotiate (Line 5, Para. 3) most probably means ______________
A. to come to an agreement
B. to make a heated discussion
C. to move gradually towards
D. to succeed in crossing
4. It can be inferred from the passage that ______________
A. children have been alternately beaten and loved through the ages
B. childhood experiences are varied because of differences in child-rearing in different times and places
C. children are dependent on their parents even if they have been in their childhood
D. children have been receiving more and more care from their parents and the society
5. The writer's attitude to progress in the perception of childhood is ______________
A. positive B. neutral C. indifferent D. critical
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